A reference style is a standardized way of referencing your sources in the text and in the reference list. One example is to use parentheses in the text with information about the author and the year of publication (APA), another is to give the information in footnotes (Chicago).

In every subject field, there are preferences when it comes to how sources should be cited. Historians use footnotes, social scientists use parentheses in the text, and so on. There are a lot of variations in both parentheses and footnotes. Researchers need to adjust their reference style to the journal or publisher in question. However, as a student, it is important that you learn the basic principles of citing.

The full reference list comes at the end of the text. The reference list is also made according to a template. Follow a standard reference style, so that you can look up in a collection of examples when in doubt.

The selection of reference styles in this guide is based on a survey conducted among academic staff at the University of Agder and Telemark University College.

Collections of examples are available for the following reference styles:

APA 6th
APA 6th for footnotes
Chicago 16th A

Sist oppdatert: 5/10/2015